Double cropping rice-fallow systems of south Asia

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New cropping system helps farmers grow two crops a year where before they could only grow one
Validated RNRRS Output. Home List by Audience List by Topic

A new cropping system helps farmers grow two crops a year where before they could only grow one. The new system combines early ripening varieties of rice with chickpeas. Because the rice can be harvested early, there’s time to sow a chickpea crop to take advantage of the moisture still left in the soil. Previously the rice ripened too late and the land was left fallow. Now, farmers can grow an extra crop, a big advantage where there is no irrigation. Farmers in India, Nepal and Bangladesh are growing chickpeas – popular because they fetch good prices – and also lentils, mungbean, pigeonpea, field pea, buckwheat, horsegram and vegetables. This system could impact over 15 million hectares of fallow land in South Asia.

Project Ref: PSP35:
Topic: 1. Improving Farmers Livelihoods: Better Crops, Systems & Pest Management
Lead Organisation: CAZS-NR, UK 
Source: Plant Sciences Programme


Contents:

Description
Validation
Current Situation
Lessons Learned
Impacts On Poverty
Environmental Impact
Annex

Description

Research Programmes:

Plant Sciences Research Programme (PSP)

Relevant Research Projects:

R7540, R7541, R8098, R8221, R8269

  • UK
    • CAZS Natural Resources, Bangor UK (Dr Dave Harris)
    • Natural Resources Institute (Dr C. Riches)
  • Bangladesh
    • PROVA, Rajshahi, Bangladesh (Mr A. M. Musa)
  • India
    • ICRISAT, Patancheru, AP, India (Dr J.V.D.K. Kumar Rao)
    • Catholic Relief Services, Hyderabad, India (Mr M. Kankal)
    • Gramin Vikas Trust (East), Ranchi, India (Mr V.K. Vij)
  • Nepal
    • FORWARD, Chitwan, Nepal (Mr N. N. Khanal)

Research Outputs, Problems and Solutions:

More than 15 million hectares of land in S. Asia is left fallow after rice is harvested at the end of the monsoon season (Fig. 1, R7541, Subbarao et al, 2001). Of this total area, 2.11 million hectares (33% of the kharif rice growing area) are to be found in Bangladesh, 0.39 million hectares (26%) in Nepal while most rice fallow land, 11.65 million hectares (29%), is found in India. These rice fallows can be used to grow an additional crop to utilise the moisture still retained in the soil. Technologies to facilitate establishment of chickpea were developed in farmers’ fields in the Barind area of NW Bangladesh using participatory action research (R7540, Musa et al., 2001). This technology, comprising short duration chickpea (as a model rabi crop), early sowing, minimum tillage, ‘on-farm’ seed priming (including supplementation with molybdenum), IPM and protection from grazing has been adopted widely in the Barind and is highly cost-effective (Saha, 2002;  Socioconsultant, 2006). After preliminary constraints and demand analyses were completed in Eastern India (Joshi et al., 2002) and the Terai region of Nepal (Bourai et al., 2002) this package of practices was tested and modified in repeated cycles of participatory action research (R8098, R8221, R8269). Widespread appreciation of the benefits of chickpea production has resulted in large-scale uptake by farmers in India and proposals by CRS India (in 10 states) and the Chhattisgarh State Government to implement dissemination programmes. In Nepal, where rabi cropping is more common, participatory action research also identified other crops to follow rice, e.g. field peas, lentils, buckwheat and mungbean and some additional technological and resource management options such as IPM and IPNM were validated and promoted. Impact studies in India (Mahesh et al., 2006) and Nepal (Gauchan et al., 2005) have confirmed the positive effect on livelihoods of rabi cropping in rice fallows reported from Bangladesh. Further value was added by integrating rabi cropping with a PVS programme for rice (R7434, R8099) that has raised whole-system productivity, income and wellbeing.

Figure 1. Distribution of rice fallows in S. Asia.

Types of Research Output:

Product

Technology

Service

Process or Methodology

Policy

Other

x x


Major Commodities Involved:

Chickpea was initially used as a model throughout this work, but a range of alternative rabi crops has been tested, several of which can be grown successfully in various situations. In all three countries, the importance of improving the rice crop, to facilitate rabi cropping and thus increase total system productivity, has been recognised. In Nepal work focused upon the processes and approaches for sustainable intensification of the rice-fallow system encompassing rice, lentil, chickpea, mungbean, pigeonpea, field pea, buckwheat, horsegram, and seasonal vegetables to some extent as test crops. However, under current market conditions in all three countries, chickpea is by far the most lucrative and attractive crop to follow rice.


Production Systems:

Semi-Arid

High potential

Hillsides

Forest-Agriculture

Peri-urban

Land water

Tropical moist forest

Cross-cutting

x

x

We have focussed exclusively on rainfed areas where supplementary irrigation is not available.


Farming Systems: 

Smallholder rainfed humid

Irrigated

Wetland rice based

Smallholder rainfed highland

Smallholder rainfed dry/cold

Dualistic

Coastal artisanal fishing

x x x


Potential for Added Value:

Shorter-duration rice varieties bred using Client Oriented Breeding methods (PSP, Rice varieties for eastern India; Rice varieties for main and chaite seasons in Nepal; Rice varieties for upland, medium and lowland ecosystems in eastern and western India, R8221, R8269, R7434 and R8099) have been distributed to more than 6000 farmers in eastern India, Nepal and Bangladesh for them to test under their own conditions in an IRD (Informal Research and Development) programme. Farmers report higher rice yields and earlier harvest that allows earlier sowing of rabi crops that, in turn, maximises returns. Further integration of rice and rabi crops is essential. Cost-effective means of alleviating nutrient deficiencies, such as nutrient seed priming (PSP, On-farm seed priming to improve plant nutrition in low fertility soils, R7438) could address many of the nutrient-related constraints of both rice and rabi crops.

Alternative methods of growing rice, particularly those that result in earlier harvest such as direct seeding or that maximise returns to weeding (CPP, Cost effective weed management packages for lowland rice in Bangladesh, R8412, R8234, R7471) could further improve the system.

Crop losses from pests and diseases could be reduced by further development of IPM or ICM packages. Integration with a number of other RNRRS outputs (CPP, Chickpea ICM, R8427, R8366, R7885; CPP, ICM policy for Nepal; CPP, IPM promotion through improved training manuals, R8417, R8341) would be useful.

Marketing initiatives taken by partners in India and Nepal could be supported by various Innovation Systems outputs from CPHP and possibly by use of NRSP, Participatory market appraisal tool, R8084, and by linking with market development training capabilities of various institutions such as CIAT.

Community-based schemes to produce, store and distribute rice, chickpea and other seeds would benefit from linkages with: PSP, Community based seed production and distribution; CPP, Commercial incentives for groundnut production and farmer led multiplication, R8422, R8105; CPP, Dissemination of improved beans, R8415; CPP, Farmer multiplication systems (groundnut/potato), R8104, R8435; CPP, Good seed initiative, R8480; NRSP, Participatory Technology Development, R7412; NRSP, Scaling-up process, R7865; NRSP, Self-help groups and community action, R8084.


Validation

How the outputs were validated:

The entire approach involved action research by farmers in India, Nepal and Bangladesh, facilitated by a range of partners with overall coordination by CAZS-NR. Validation used a combination of interaction/feedback with farmers and purposive sampling and measurement of crop performance and is an ongoing/continuous process.

In Bangladesh, the NGO Peoples Resource Oriented Voluntary Association (PROVA) coordinated and facilitated farmers, initially to test elements of the package, and subsequently to provide training in operation of the entire package and to grow large quantities of seed. Large scale demonstration was done by the Department of Agricultural Extension. Backup-research was provided by the Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, ICRISAT and CAZS-NR (and also BRRI and NRI for some rice technologies). There is evidence that elements of the package are used by thousands of farmers and that yield increases of more than 70% can result. Increases from seed priming alone averaged more than 35% over a four-year period. Fig. 2 summarises the involvement of partners in Bangladesh.

Figure 2. Roles of the main actors in Bangladesh RRC validation.

In Nepal, where rabi cropping is more common, additional emphasis was placed on alternatives to chickpea but the same approach was used. Community organisation was found to be essential to successfully address such previously intractable problems as protection from free-range grazing following rice harvest. The NGO FORWARD coordinated and organised 57 farmers groups in collaboration with CBOs, the District Agricultural Development Offices, the National Grain Legumes Programme, CIMMYT, AVRDC and ICRISAT to test and validate the technologies for four years across four districts of Nepal. In addition, the approach is being extrapolated to 15 other projects implemented by FORWARD in 15 districts.

In India, Catholic Relief Services (CRS), working through a network of 51 operating partners and 12 coordinating partners and with support from ICRISAT and CAZS-NR, organised, trained and facilitated 10505 farmers in 7 states (Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Orissa, W. Bengal, Maharashtra) to grow chickpea after rice. Additional action research was coordinated by Gramin Vikas Trust in West Bengal and Jharkhand states and by the Department of Agriculture in Orissa.

Where the Outputs were Validated:

The outputs have been validated in rice fallow areas (semi-arid, smallholder, rainfed, dry as defined in questions 7 and 8) in the Barind area of N.W. Bangladesh (1999 – 2006), five Terai districts of Nepal (2001-2006) and in seven states of eastern India (2001-2006). The work has targeted resource-poor rice farmers in marginal, often remote, areas (including disadvantaged tribal areas in India and Nepal). In particular, the outputs are specifically relevant to farmers without access to irrigation and who thus have fewer land-use options open to them.

Locations were deliberately widespread to sample as wide a range of physical and social environments (within the specified target group) as possible, in order to test the robustness and general applicability of the outputs.


Current Situation

Who are the Users?

Estimates (Kankal et al., 2006; Gauchan et al., 2005; Saha, 2002; Socioconsult, 2006) are that over 11000 households in more than 400  villages in India, more than 300 villages in four districts of Bangladesh and 30000  households in Nepal are currently using elements of the technologies developed during this work.

Beneficiaries and organizations have been using the elements of rainfed rabi farming in a variety of ways. The farming communities of Jhapa, Morang, Saptari, Siraha and Kapilvastu districts have adopted RRC primarily as a result of PSP project activities. In addition, local organizations and other NGOs have also been promoting RRC through their own channels in 15 districts.

Where the outputs have been used:

The participatory approaches used in this project maximise the likelihood of appropriate technology being adopted by farmers once they have tested it for themselves. RRC is being used where it was originally validated (see under “Where the outputs were validated”).

Scale of Current Use:

The dual nature of the action research approach means that testers/validators immediately become adopters if they find that the technology suits their needs. This has led to the rapid growth in usage indicated in “Where the outputs were validated”. The example of eastern India (Fig. 3) illustrates how rapid uptake can be, with differences between states essentially due to differences in starting the programme.

Figure 3. Cumulative number of farmers growing chickpea in response to RRC initiatives in six states of eastern India. Data from Kankal et al. (2006).

Policy and Institutional Structures, and Key Components for Success:

Key factors for success common to all three countries were:

  1. Good relations between the leading NGOs and the communities testing the RRC technologies (FORWARD, PROVA, CRS and partners);
  2. Close linkages and mutual respect between the NGOs and government line agencies (e.g., FORWARD/ NARC / DADOs in Nepal; CRS/ State Departments of Agriculture / State Agricultural Universities in India; PROVA / Department of Agricultural Extension / BARI / BRRI in Bangladesh);
  3. Ability to mobilise widespread support for previously unfashionable work on non-staple crops and in marginal areas. In particular, large NGOs like CRS have a national presence and the ability to scale up and access resources from other players such as the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (see below);
  4. Ability to influence policy using evidence-based advocacy. In Nepal, data on new crop varieties gathered from participatory approaches can now be used to support official variety release proposals. In India, evidence of widespread RRC technology adoption from CRS studies was influential in persuading the state government of Chhattisgarh to implement its own RRC programme from 2006-2007. Joint PROVA/DAE monitoring of RRC testing in Bangladesh led to its adoption into approved extension packages in the Barind.
  5. Willingness of farmers to test and adapt new ideas under difficult circumstances. Persistence with the technology over more than one year has been a characteristic of all farmers testing RRC.

Lessons Learned and Uptake Pathways

Promotion of Outputs:

Promotion is being continued by the original NGO partners (CRS, PROVA, FORWARD) in all three countries to the best of their abilities without external funding. In Nepal, this includes further support of farmers’ community efforts in seed production and the maintenance, strengthening and networking of cooperatives for marketing of RRC products. Some cooperatives in Kapilvastu have been getting funds from the APP support project, the DADO, District Development Committee (DDC) and Village Development Committees (VDC) for scaling-up of RRC technologies. A concept note by FORWARD ‘Strengthening Local Seed Supply Systems of Cereals and Legumes in Hilly Areas of Mid-western Region of Nepal‘ has recently been provisionally accepted by the National Agriculture Research and Development Fund (NARDF) and, if funded, would replicate the RRC approach in maize-fallow areas. Around 22,000 information booklets and technical bulletins have been distributed.

RRC technology has been adopted by DAE in Bangladesh and by DADOs in Nepal who will continue to include it in their extension and training programmes, although both organisations are somewhat dependent on the NGOs for training of trainers and for access to technical support. The National Grain Legume Programme in Nepal is involved in the breeding, selection and agronomy of additional rabi-cropping options. Some NGOs have also begun promoting rabi cropping, e.g. CDRC in eastern Nepal and SUPPORT Foundation in the far west. In India, CRS is committed to an ambitious plan of expansion involving promotion of the technology in nearly 900 villages during the 2006-2007 season. The Chhattisgarh state government, following a joint workshop in Raipur with CRS and the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) also plans its own promotion programme in 2006-2007.

Potential Barriers Preventing Adoption of Outputs:

The overriding constraint to expansion in all three countries is seed supply, particularly for short-duration chickpea. Chickpea is an ‘orphan’ crop that attracts little private sector involvement because it has a low seed multiplication rate, can only be produced in the rabi season for the following rabi season, is vulnerable to storage pests throughout the intervening rainy season and is bulky and difficult to distribute cheaply. Nevertheless, the current high market price for grain makes it an attractive crop for smallholders if they have access to farm-saved or locally produced seeds.

National policies to promote crop diversification are in place (e.g. in Bangladesh) but the support for alternative crops is small in comparison to that for staple crops such as rice. In an integrated system, continued use of long duration rainfed rice (as promoted by rice breeders who often consider rice only in isolation) limits the potential for successful sowing of rainfed rabi crops and hence for increasing total system productivity.

Secondary constraints are timely access to quality-assured inputs and poorly developed markets for inputs and grain. All constraints are associated with lack of capital for investment, even though these are relatively low-cost technologies.

An input currently in short supply is information about the potential of RRC and how to pursue it. Awareness amongst farmers that crops can be grown on residual soil moisture after rice was a major factor in promoting adoption of RRC (Joshi et al., 2002; Bourai et al., 2002).

In India and Bangladesh, the popularity of chickpea for rice fallows threatens the sustainability of the system. Growing chickpea (or any rabi crop) repeatedly on the same land can lead to outbreaks of disease. Viable alternatives to chickpea are needed to allow farmers to rotate crops after rice and avoid buildup of pests and diseases to damaging levels.

How to Overcome Barriers to Adoption of Outputs:

Although some progress has been made in mainstreaming participatory action research with GOs, efforts are required to influence further State/National policies in this regard.

Social mobilisation and collective action within communities have successfully addressed many of the constraints on RRC. For instance, community seed supply schemes are operating in all three countries and are particularly well advanced in Nepal and Bangladesh but more effort on a greater scale is required. Great emphasis is being placed on marketing issues in India, with a focus on group action and bulk buying/selling of inputs and outputs.

Building on the partnerships and networks developed during the RNRRS period is very important for sustainability.

Much more applied, on-farm research is required to establish viable rainfed rabi cropping alternatives and to test and promote short duration rice varieties in order to optimise the whole cropping system in a sustainable fashion.

Lessons Learned:
  1. Direct farmer involvement in the applied research process increases the chance of, and hastens, adoption of any innovations that are identified.
  2. After testing various models of how to introduce RRC into new villages, we have found that exposing a critical mass (40-50% of farmers in a village) to the technology is very important. In particular, this approach addresses the problem of how to protect small patches of crop from free-grazing animals.
  3. We have also learned that failure does not demoralise farmers who appreciate that even a simple, new technology takes time to learn.
  4. Making all the inputs (material, knowledge) available to farming communities on time is very important.
  5. Local institutions need to be empowered for sustainable use of the technology.

Impacts On Poverty

Poverty Impact Studies: 

Bangladesh:

Saha, A.K. (2002). Impact assessment study for the DFID-funded project R7540 ‘Promotion of Chickpea following Rainfed Rice in the Barind Area of Bangladesh’. CAZS Natural Resources, University of Wales, Bangor, UK.

Socioconsult (2006). Report on Impact Assessment Study of Chickpea in the High Barind Tract (HBT). Socioconsult Ltd., SEL Centre, 29 West Panthapath, Dhanmondi, Dhaka.

Joshi, K.D., Musa, A., Johansen, C., Harris, D., Devkota, K.P., Gyawali, S. and Witcombe, J.R. 2004. Short duration rice varieties for the high-barind tract of Bangladesh: the initial impact of varieties from client-oriented breeding and selection in Nepal. CAZS Discussion Paper. Pp 1-33. Available at www.dfid-psp.org

Pandit, D.B. Assessment of the Adoption and Spread of Short Duration Rice Varieties in High Barind Tract of Bangladesh. 2005. (Not yet publicly available. Not completed).

Nepal

Bourai, V.A., Joshi, K.D. and Khanal, N. (2002). Socioeconomic constraints and opportunities in rainfed rabi cropping in rice fallow areas of Nepal. ICRISAT, India. [Constraints analysis and baseline study].

Gauchan, D., Khanal, N., Khanal, N.P., Thapa, S. and Joshi, K.D. (2005). Assessment of the Outcomes of Rainfed Rabi Cropping (RRC) Project in Nepal Terai. FORWARD, Chitwan, Nepal.

India

Joshi, P.K., Birthal, P.S., and Bourai, V.A. May 2002. Socioeconomic constraints and opportunities in rainfed rabi cropping in rice fallow areas of India. A Consultancy report. 59 pp. ICRISAT, India. [Constraints analysis and baseline study].

Kankal, M., Basu, I., Gupta, B., Mishra, K., Gupta, A., Peter, R. and Dash, P. (2006). Agricultural Alternatives – Experiences of Rainfed Rabi Cropping in Rice fallows of India. Catholic Relief Services-USCCB, October 2006. pp 33.

Mukhopadhyay, S., Pangare, V., Garig, B.S. and Overton, J. (2006). Title II Development Assistance Program II (2002-2006). Final Evaluation, July 2006. Catholic Relief Services, India.

How the Poor have Benefited (including gender and other poverty groups):

In Nepal, the project brought many positive improvements in the natural resource base. For example, there has been a considerable reduction in cattle dung burning with concomitant improvement in soil fertility and more efficient utilization of family and womens’ labour during slack seasons. Grain legume sales have  increased by 220%, whilst consumption of vegetables and grain legume dal [1] also increased. Vegetable consumption of direct participants increased by 30% and for indirect participants by 22% indicating a positive effect on household nutrition.  

Over 70% of direct participants and over 40% of the indirect participant farmers reported positive improvement in their access to technological information. The project also strengthened social capital, e.g. a significant number of farmers’ groups have been established and strengthened and some of them have organised into co-operatives for activities e.g. seed production and marketing of chickpea, rice, mungbean, and also establishing multipurpose agroforestry nurseries.

Up to two-thirds of the rice fallow areas of the sampled farmers have been brought under winter and spring crops and cropping intensity has increased up to 205%. Rice, mungbean and chickpea were the three important crops where over 50% of participants adopted new varieties and cultivation of mungbean increased by more than 60% in the marginal rainfed areas of project districts.

More than 60% of the direct participants and around 40% of indirect participants have adopted low cost, environmentally friendly, resource augmenting, management technologies and practices, such as seed priming, urine sprays, integrated pest management (IPM), integrated plant nutrient systems (IPNS), minimum tillage, improved compost making, and multipurpose tree species on their farms.

Economic analysis showed that introduction of legumes in the rice-fallows is beneficial with benefit-cost ratios (BCR) greater than 2 for many legumes (Gauchan, 2005).

In India, in a survey of 307 farmers in six states of Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Orissa, Jharkhand and West Bengal 60% of farmers had increased the area under chickpea crop as a result of RRC initiatives. Seventy percent of the farmers reported that chickpea cultivation was highly profitable and that their income had increased as a result. Benefit: cost ratio for chickpea cultivation was about 5.5. Seventy-four percent felt that chickpea cultivation had improved the fertility of the soil and 43% said chickpea cultivation generates substantial additional employment. More than two thirds of the chickpea growers used the additional income to further improve their farming enterprise and to educate their children (Kankal et al., 2006).

In Bangladesh, Socioconsult (2006) calculated that rainfed chickpea had the lowest costs but the highest benefit: cost ratio (2.6) of any comparable rabi crop, including irrigated Boro rice although net returns per acre from the latter crop were higher (but required greater investment). Households in RRC-project areas consumed 30% more chickpeas than other, non-project households and chickpea growers reported that their incomes had increased.

Adoption of earlier maturing rice varieties has increased the productivity of the rice-based systems in each of the three countries by making available extra time for other operations, lower cost of production, reduced use of water and nutrients besides, in some cases, increasing cropping intensity (two crops a year in the place of one). 

[1] Split or whole grains of legumes used for making soup to go with rice known as dal in the vernacular


Environmental Impact

Direct and Indirect Environmental Benefits:
  • Regular cultivation of legumes is known to improve soil fertility and follow-on beneficial effects on rice performance have been observed in India and Nepal.
  • No marginal, uncultivated land is used but better use is made of existing farmland.
  • Presence of ground cover for a greater part of the year will reduce the risk of soil erosion.
  • Some elements of the integrated approach promoted, particularly in Nepal, emphasise re-cycling of local materials and reduce reliance on external inputs, including cooking fuels.
Adverse Environmental Impacts:

There are no adverse environmental impacts anticipated.

Coping with the Effects of Climate Change, or Risk from Natural Disasters:

Farmers now have more cropping choices and land use options open to them. There is an increase in agro-biodiversity which improves resilience. Additional income, better family nutrition and increased empowerment as a result of social mobilisation all improve wellbeing and peoples’ capacity to cope with change if and when it occurs.

Diversification of cropping in rice fallows is the key to poverty alleviation in this agro-ecosystem, and deserves priority attention.


Annex

References

Bourai, V.A., Joshi, K.D., and Khanal, N. June 2002. Socioeconomic constraints and opportunities in rainfed rabi cropping in rice fallow areas of Nepal. A Consultancy report. 55 pp. Plant Sciences Research Programme.

CRS (2005). Making success a pattern. Outcome of a National Workshop on Rainfed Rabi Cropping, held 18-20 July, 2005, Raipur, Chhattisgarh. Catholic Relief Services, India.

CRS (2006). Rainfed Rabi Cropping. Proceedings of a State-Level Workshop held 1-2 July 2006, Raipur, Chhattisgarh. National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD), India.

Gauchan, D., Khanal, N., Khanal, N.P., Thapa, S. and Joshi, K.D. (2005). Assessment of the Outcomes of Rainfed Rabi Cropping (RRC) Project in Nepal Terai. FORWARD, Chitwan, Nepal.

Harris, D. (2006). Development and testing of ‘on-farm’ seed priming.  Advances in Agronomy 90: 129-178.

Joshi, P.K., Birthal, P.S., and Bourai, V.A. May 2002. Socioeconomic constraints and opportunities in rainfed rabi cropping in rice fallow areas of India. A Consultancy report. 59 pp. Plant Sciences Research Programme.

Kankal, M., Basu, I., Gupta, B., Mishra, K., Gupta, A., Peter, R. and Dash, P. (2006). Agricultural Alternatives – Experiences of Rainfed Rabi Cropping in Rice fallows of India. Catholic Relief Services-USCCB, October 2006. pp 33.

Khanal, N., Joshi, K.D. and Harris, D. (2004). Working with systems perspective: an innovative approach to improve overall systems productivity in Nepal. Technical Paper No. 26. FORWARD, Chitwan, Nepal.

Kumar Rao, J.V.D.K., Harris, D., Musa, A.M., Johansen, C., Joshi, K.D., Khanal, N., Gangwar, J.S. and Bhattacharyya, K. (2003). Promotion of rainfed rabi cropping of chickpea in rice fallows of South Asia. Pages 83-84 in Abstracts: International Chickpea Conference (eds: R.N.Sharma, M.Yasin, S.L.Swami, M.A.Khan and Ajit J. William). January 20-22, 2003. Indira Gandhi Agricultural University, Raipur, Chattisgarh, India.

Kumar Rao, J.V.D.K., Harris, D., Josh, K D., Khanal, N., Johansen, C. and Musa, A.M. (2004). Promotion of rainfed rabi cropping in rice fallows of eastern India, Nepal and Bangladesh – an overview. In Policy and strategy for increasing income and food security for poor farmers in Nepal and south Asia through improved crop management of high yielding chickpea in rice fallows held at Kathmandu, Nepal, 17-18 November 2004. ICRISAT, AP, India.

Mukhopadhyay, S., Pangare, V., Garig, B.S. and Overton, J. (2006). Title II Development Assistance Program II (2002-2006). Final Evaluation, July 2006. Catholic Relief Services, India.

Musa, A. M., Harris, D., Johansen, C. and Kumar J. (2001). Short duration chickpea to replace fallow after aman rice: the role of on-farm seed priming in the High Barind Tract of Bangladesh. Experimental Agriculture 37 (4): 509-521

Saha, A.K. (2002). Impact assessment study for the DFID-funded project R7540 ‘Promotion of Chickpea following Rainfed Rice in the Barind Area of Bangladesh‘. CAZS Natural Resources, University of Wales, Bangor, UK.

Socioconsult (2006). Report on Impact Assessment Study of Chickpea in the High Barind Tract (HBT). Socioconsult Ltd., SEL Centre, 29 West Panthapath, Dhanmondi, Dhaka.

Subbarao, G. V., Kumar Rao, J. V. D. K., Kumar, J., Johansen, C., Deb, U. K., Ahmed, I., Krishna Rao, M. V., Venkataratnam, L., Hebbar, K. R., Sesha Sai, M. V. R., and Harris, D. (2001). Spatial distribution and quantification of rice-fallows in South Asia – potential for legumes. Patancheru 502324, Andhra Pradesh, India: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics. 316 pp. ISBN 92-9066-436-3.


Relevant Research Projects, with links to the
Research for Development (R4D) web site
and Technical Reports:

R4D Project Title Technical Report
R7540 Promotion of chickpea following rainfed rice in the Barind area of Bangladesh
  • Uptake and impact of the promotion of chickpea following rainfed rice in the Barind area of Bangladesh
R7541 Assessing the potential for short-duration legumes in South Asian rice fallows
R8098 Promotion of rainfed rabi cropping in rice fallows of India and Nepal: pilot phase
R8221 Promotion of rainfed rabi cropping in rice fallows of eastern India and Nepal: Phase 2
R8269 Improvement of rainfed cropping systems in the High Barind Tract of Bangladesh
R7438 Participatory promotion of “on farm” seed priming
R8412 Decision support frameworks for weed management in lowland rice in Bangladesh
R8234 Promotion of cost-effective weed management practices for lowland rice in Bangladesh
R7471 Developing weed management strategies for rice based cropping systems in Bangladesh
R8427 Ensuring the sustainability of an integrated crop management approach to chickpea production for poor farmers through up-scaling and far-reaching adoption in Nepal.
R8366 Policy and strategy for increasing income and food security for poor farmers in Nepal and South Asia through improved crop management of high yielding chickpea in rice fallows.
R7885 Promoting the adoption of improved disease and pest management technologies in chickpea by poor farmers in mid hills and hillside cropping systems in Nepal
R8417 Promoting adoption of integrated pest management in vegetable production through improved resources for Farmer Trainers
R8341 Promoting adoption of integrated pest management in vegetable production
Leaflet:
Pest Promotion through the Cartoon Network.
R8422 Improving farmer and other stakeholders’ access to quality information and products for pre- and post- harvest maize systems management in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania.
R8105 Farmer-led multiplication of rosette resistant groundnut varieties for Eastern Uganda. Main Report. Annex.
R8415 Dissemination of improved Phaseolus bean varieties in Tanzania.
Main Report. Annex.
R8104 Promoting potato seed-tuber management for increased ware yields in Kapchorwa District, Easten Uganda. Main Report. Annex.
R8435 Sustainable Potato Seed – Tuber Management and Marketing Through Commercialization (SPOMMAC).
Main Report. Annex 3, Annex 4, Annex 5, Annex 7 to 11, Annex 12.
R7865 Scaling-up strategies for pilot research experiences – a comparative review
R8084 Enhancing livelihoods and NR management in peri-urban villages near Hubli-Dharwad