Fair shares for all from the common pool
|Rainwater harvesting and management of Common Pool Resources|
Common pool resources (CPR) management systems must prioritise the needs of the poor. A knowledge base in Tanzania seeks to do just that by identifying aspects of institutional, regulatory and tenure systems for equitable access to runoff and related CPR in rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems. It includes information on agreed arrangements for tenure and management of CPR in target areas and guidelines for use by District Councils, wards, villages and communities in making CPR management plans. These plans therefore protect the interests of the poor while ensuring optimum and sustainable benefits to the communities using RWH systems. The knowledge base is in use by village communities, water users, District Councils and NGOs in the target areas of Tanzania.
Project Ref: NRSP14:
Natural Resources Systems Programme and Government of Tanzania
Relevant Research Projects:
Institutional Partners and contact persons included:
The project sought to identify aspects of institutional, regulatory and tenure systems requiring improvement in order to enhance the capacity of stakeholders to plan, negotiate and implement common pool resources (CPR) management systems in ways that prioritise the needs of the poor. The outputs were: (i) Knowledge base on: institutional and regulatory systems for equitable access to runoff and related CPRs in rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems; mechanisms for CPR management; description of groups of the poor using both local indicators and generic definition; effects of transaction costs on the implementation and performance of CPR management mechanisms; (ii) Document on agreed arrangements for tenure and management of CPR in target areas; (iii) Guidelines for use by District Councils, wards, villages and communities in making CPR management plans that protect the interest of the poor while ensuring optimum and sustainable benefits to the communities using rainwater harvesting systems; (iv) Communication products for enhancing the capacity of stakeholders to plan, negotiate and implement/enforce institutional, regulatory and management systems for CPR, in ways that protect the interests of the poor. These activities were conducted between 2002 and 2005.
The outputs focused on the following main commodities: Maize, rice, lablab, vegetables (onions, tomatoes, water melons, cabbage) and livestock. These outputs could also be applied to other commodities such as tree planting, domestic water use, aquaculture, and brick making and construction.
Value would be added by incorporating outputs from RNRRS projects R8115 and R8381, and non RNRRS from SWMnet project ASA/CGS-SWMnet RP-04-01 titled "Market Oriented Approaches for Integrated Management of Soil-Water and Nutrients for Crops in East and Central Africa: Managing Nutrient and Water together in Response to Markets". This is because Low soil fertility is recognised as the next most critical constraint to increased food production and farm incomes in semi arid areas once the water constraint is removed. Furthermore, poor smallholder farmers are yet to benefit from opportunities created by liberalized markets for agricultural products.
The outputs from R8115 included: (i) a database of spatial and temporal variations in soil fertility patterns and management strategies in GIS; and (ii) communication products on improved strategies for integrated soil and plant nutrient management tailored to specific categories of RWH users, including extension agents and other farmers' support agents.
Outputs from R8381 included: (i) A knowledge base on barriers and constraints limiting uptake promotion; (ii) Communication and Uptake Promotion strategies for impact of research for development in soil and water management; (iii) Training manual for skills development in communication planning and uptake promotion.
From SWMnet project ASA/CGS-SWMnet RP-04-01, the outputs were: (i) knowledge base of effective and social economically best-bet options for integrating the management of soil water and nutrients in response to markets by smallholder farmers; (ii) Effective scaling-up to promote uptake and utilisation of the social economically best-bet integrated interventions in soil water and nutrients.
These outputs could be clustered with outputs from R7304 and R8280
How the outputs were validated:The knowledge base (on the local institutions and regulatory systems for equitable access to runoff and related CPRs, transaction costs in managing CPR; and constraints faced by communities) was used by the communities to form and strengthen water users groups to ensure equitable distribution of water resources among different stakeholder groups. Key stakeholders (especially the relatively poor and politically weak) are currently adequately represented in planning committees compared to baseline levels of 2002. A M&E study conducted in 2005 indicated an increase of 11% of women and 102% of youths in institutions for CPR management. Stakeholders in the project villages have realised the need to review and change their tenure and management approaches. For example, in Tae (Western Pare Lowlands), during dry season, villagers have agreed to cultivate close to each other in order to reduce water losses. Furthermore, improved management of water during the dry season enabled farmers to cultivate high value crops like onions, water melons and tomatoes that increased their incomes to US $ 2583 per hectare of onions compared to maize, US $ 379 per ha and hence contributed to better poverty reduction.
A planning guideline, in form of matrix, was used in dialogues among communities along the toposequence of the Makanya River catchment to address the problems of water resources distribution and management. The matrix was found to be a useful dialogue tool to guide the process of defining an effective strategy for the development of the catchment. The dialogue involved stakeholders from the Ministry of Agriculture Food Security and Cooperatives (MAFSC), including the Minister Ministry of Works; Pangani Basin Water Office, Members of Parliament; Researchers, District Councils, Extension subject matter specialists, NGO staff (MIFIPRO, SAIPRO and VECO) and the communities. The dialogue process enhanced the capacity of different stakeholders groups including women and youths to plan, negotiate and implement institutional, regulatory and management systems for CPRs, in ways that protected the interests of the poor.
The knowledge sharing products developed and used by different stakeholders enabled planners and policy makers at district and national level to link plans and programmes for CPR management with the requirements of national policies, strategies and legislation. District Agricultural Development Programs (DADPs) are now containing ex-ante analysis and economic benefits to justify programme activities in RWH. There is also a commitment by the Government and its partners to support investment in RWH.
Where the Outputs were Validated:
The outputs have been validated in Tanzania in Maswa District, Shinyanga region and Western Pare Lowlands (WPLL) in Kilimanjaro region. The validation was implemented between 2002 and 2005. The targeted groups were mainly poor smallholder farmers including men, women and youths. The production systems fall under semi arid category and the farming systems fall under smallholder rainfed highland and smallholder rainfed dry/cold categories.
In the WPLL the dominant farming systems are Coffee-Banana-Horticulture, maize-legume-vegetables, maize-legume, Maize - Livestock and Livestock - Fishing - Rice. Coffee-Banana-Horticulture is practiced in the highlands. Tree crops are grown on permanent plots within a highly intensive land use structure. Maize-legume-vegetable farming system is practised in the upper and middle slope areas; main crops being maize, lablab, vegetables, beans, bananas, sugar cane, cassava and sweet potatoes. Vegetables, especially onions, are the main cash earner to the farmers. Maize-Legumes is practised in both the highlands and lowlands, where maize and beans are grown. In the maize-livestock and livestock-fishing-rice systems, the main crops are maize, cowpeas, lablab and to a smaller extent beans and pumpkins. Few farmers practice conventional irrigation for rice production using water from the Pangani River. Livestock kept include cattle, goats, sheep and chicken. Fishing is another important enterprise for both domestic and commercial purposes.
In Maswa District, the dominant farming systems include sorghum-livestock-millet, sorghum-livestock-rice, sorghum-rice, rice, and maize-legume. Sorghum production is the most important enterprise in this system followed by livestock production. However, sorghum and millet are the dominant crops. In the sorghum-livestock-rice system, crop production is the main preoccupation. The rice farming system is dominated by cultivation of rice under bunded rice fields locally called majaluba. In the maize-legume system, crops grown include maize, cowpeas, groundnuts and pigeon peas, sometimes grown in mixed or sole cropping.
Who are the Users?
Where the outputs have been used:
Scale of Current Use:
Policy and Institutional Structures, and Key Components for Success:
Promotion of Outputs:
The promotion of outputs is currently taking place nationwide. In districts like Maswa, Same and Mwanga, Mbeya, Njombe, Hai, Rombo, Handeni, Singida, Kwimba, Shinyanga, Bariadi and Misungwi, development programmes are already supporting adoption of RWH for various purposes.
Potential Barriers Preventing Adoption of Outputs:
Current barriers preventing or slowing the adoption of the outputs include:
How to Overcome Barriers to Adoption of Outputs:
Changes required to remove/reduce barriers to adoption include:
Important lessons, which could be drawn from the research project R8116, in order to get the outputs used by the largest number of poor people, are described as follows:
Poverty Impact Studies:
A study on "Benefits of RWH in Poverty Reduction in Tanzania" was conducted in Maswa and Same districts. The study involved yield monitoring of paddy and maize crops to establish evidence of benefits of RWH in poverty reduction. The study showed that:
Impressive performance of paddy under RWH linked to drainage suggests a need for integrating rural road drainage systems with RWH for agricultural production in semi-arid areas. Such integrated development plans will optimise the benefits from public investment in road drainage infrastructure.
However, for investments in RWH to have an impact on poverty reduction, increased linkages to profitable markets is critical.
How the Poor have Benefited (including gender and other poverty groups):
The following positive impacts on livelihood have been recorded:
The outputs have clearly indicated that RWH has a potential to reduce poverty and livelihood vulnerability in seasons with poor rainfall. Furthermore, they have shown that livelihood development requires a broad approach that encourages enterprises in and beyond agriculture. However, although RWH gave impressive returns to land and labour, even when seasonal rains were below average, female- headed households were more dependent on crop production and had less diverse livelihood activities than male-headed households. In Same District, for example, it was found that richer people had more access to run-off because of the location of their land relative to the water source in the RWH system combined with their power in the local society.
Direct and Indirect Environmental Benefits:
Application of the outputs would contribute positively towards the integrated water resource management in both the Lake Victoria basin and the Pangani basin. Both basins support a large number of irrigation projects and hydroelectric power plants (including Nyumba ya Mungu in Tanzania and Jinja in Uganda). Furthermore, the Lake Victoria basin is known worldwide as it contributes water to the Nile River basin, which is a trans-boundary River basin. On the other hand the Pangani River basin is very important in Tanzania and is often affected by water scarcity. Improved management of CPRs in these basins will reduce erosion effects to the wetlands, conserve the biodiversity and contributes positively towards their overall management.
Adverse Environmental Impacts:
None. Mainly positive environmental impacts are expected since the consideration of environmental needs would be part and parcel of the integrated CPR management plans.
Coping with the Effects of Climate Change, or Risk from Natural Disasters:
Climate change threatens to damage the ecosystems on which poor people depend, thereby impeding their livelihood strategies. In the semi- arid areas, droughts are natural, recurring and endemic features of the environment and the prospect of variable seasonal conditions is a normal risk that must be incorporated into CPR management. The outputs contributed in helping poor people to strengthen their livelihoods and capacity to adapt to climate variability. Furthermore, the outputs contributed towards government's recognition of the potential of RWH in mitigating the adverse effects of climate change, and the government commitment to promote RWH in rural areas. This will lead to more self-reliant management of CPR at farm level, and the development of agricultural systems that are physically, biologically, and financially sustainable.
Relevant Research Projects,
with links to the
Geographical regions included:
Target Audiences for this content:
Crop farmers, Livestock farmers, Fishers, Forest-dependent poor,